for Tourists: Kyrgyzstan-one
of the most beautiful countries of the world. The
nature of Kyrgyzstan is varied and virgin. Dear
people! Concern to the nature carefully, keep the
cleanliness-then she will fill you with pleasure and
delight of stay in this wonderful country!
Having gone to mountains - you can drink the
cleanest water directly from streams. Aromas of
grasses are inexhaustible. Local people is trustful
!However, service for tourists is not always adequate to advertising and
the prices. Be ready to unexpectedness. More likely
this country is for the persons interested in active
leisure, not afraid extreme tourism. Before to go,
to the proved companies.
our agent in Kyrgyzstan-which can always
be near to you and solve many problems! Administration
The history of Kyrgyzstan
goes back to the depth of ancient times. Numerous archaeological findings
such as household items and tools, caves and site of the Stone Age,
petroglyphs and other traces of material culture made it possible to compose
quite a comprehensive and complete picture of life that primitive people
lived at the territory of today's Kyrgyzstan.
The first traces of a man presence here refer to early Palaeolith-Ashel
epoch (400-100 thousand years ago). There are archaeological findings and
relics belonging to Moostjer epoch (100-40 thousand years ago), upper
Palaeolith (40-12 thousand years ago), and Mesolith (10-6 thousand years
B.C.) found in Kyrgyzstan. The Primitive men of Naeolith period (6-4
thousands B.C.) lived throughout the territory of Kyrgyzstan. The sites of
these times were found at the Issyk-Kul Lake, in the Tien Shan mountains, in
the Chu River valley, in the valleys of Talas, Alai, and Ketmentyobin as
well as other places.
In the Bronze Age (2nd millennium - beginning of the 1st millennium B.C.)
nomadic as well as sedentary populated the Kyrgyz lands with the later
mostly concentrated in the valleys of the Southern Kyrgyzstan. The material
evidences of this time are sepulchres, household items and items of
jewellery found there.
Perhaps as early as at 7th to 3rd centuries B.C. the territory of Kyrgyzstan
was inhabited by the nomadic tribes of Sakas: Saka Tigrakhauda and Saka
Stone implements found in the Tian Shan mountains indicate the presence
of human society in what is now Kyrgyzstan as many as 200,000 to 300,000
years ago. The first written records of a Kyrgyz civilization appear in
Chinese chronicles beginning about 2000 B.C. The Kyrgyz, a nomadic people,
originally inhabited an area of present-day northwestern Mongolia. In the
fourth and third centuries B.C., Kyrgyz bands were among the raiders who
persistently invaded Chinese territory and stimulated the building of the
original Great Wall of China in the third century B.C. The Kyrgyz achieved a
reputation as great fighters and traders. In the centuries that followed,
some Kyrgyz tribes freed themselves from domination by the Huns by moving
northward into the Yenisey and Baikal regions of present-day south-central
Here you can see the photo pictures/sculptures of ancients people
who lived on the territory of Kyrgyzstan- these sculptures were made
on the basis of archeological dig of
skulls. Photo pictures of sculptures are from Kyrgyz National History Museum
The first Kyrgyz state, the Kyrgyz Khanate, existed from the sixth until
the thirteenth century A.D., expanding by the tenth century southwestward to
the eastern and northern regions of present-day Kyrgyzstan and westward to
the headwaters of the Ertis (Irtysh) River in present-day eastern Kazakstan.
In this period, the khanate established intensive commercial contacts in
China, Tibet, Central Asia, and Persia.
In the meantime, beginning about 1000 B.C., large tribes collectively
known as the Scythians also lived in the area of present-day Kyrgyzstan.
Excellent warriors, the Scythian tribes farther west had resisted an
invasion by the troops of Alexander the Great in 328-27 B.C. The Kyrgyz
tribes who entered the region around the sixth century played a major role
in the development of feudalism.
The metal implements from 14-15 century►
The Kyrgyz reached their greatest expansion by conquering the Uygur
Khanate and forcing it out of Mongolia in A.D. 840, then moving as far south
as the Tian Shan range--a position the Kyrgyz maintained for about 200
years. By the twelfth century, however, Kyrgyz domination had shrunk to the
region of the Sayan Mountains, northwest of present-day Mongolia, and the
Altay Range on the present-day border of China and Mongolia. In the same
period, other Kyrgyz tribes were moving across a wide area of Central Asia
and mingling with other ethnic groups.
Kyrgyzstan - Mongol Domination
The Mongols' invasion of Central Asia in the fourteenth century
devastated the territory of Kyrgyzstan, costing its people their
independence and their written language. The son of Chinggis (Genghis) Khan,
Dzhuchi, conquered the Kyrgyz tribes of the Yenisey region, who by this time
had become disunited. For the next 200 years, the Kyrgyz remained under the
Golden Horde and the Oriot and Jumgar khanates that succeeded that regime.
Freedom was regained in 1510, but Kyrgyz tribes were overrun in the
seventeenth century by the Kalmyks, in the mid-eighteenth century by the
Manchus, and in the early nineteenth century by the Uzbeks.
The Kyrgyz began efforts to gain protection from more powerful
neighboring states in 1758, when some tribes sent emissaries to China. A
similar mission went to the Russian Empire in 1785. Between 1710 and 1876,
the Kyrgyz were ruled by the Uzbek Quqon (Kokand) Khanate, one of the three
major principalities of Central Asia during that period (see fig. 3). Kyrgyz
tribes fought and lost four wars against the Uzbeks of Quqon between 1845
and 1873. The defeats strengthened the Kyrgyz willingness to seek Russian
protection. Even during this period, however, the Kyrgyz occupied important
positions in the social and administrative structures of the khanate, and
they maintained special military units that continued their earlier
tradition of military organization; some Kyrgyz advanced to the position of
Kyrgyzstan in the grip of Kokand
In the beginning of 19 centuries Kyrgyzstan gets in grip of Kokand
khanate. The period of Kokand become history of Kyrgyzstan as the period of
taxes, oppression, an arbitrariness, revolts. One of the main heads of
struggle against Kokand oppression was batir of sorts clan solto Chui
valleys Baiitik Baatir. In 1860 has become a citizen of Russia. It headed
revolts against Kokand conquerors, take a part with Russian forces in rout
of fortresses Pishpek, Tokmok, Merke, Aulie-Ata. Was rewarded with
Stanislav's award of 3-rd degree and a gold medal with Annenskaya tape.
Trading ways of East Turkestan passed through Kyrgyzstan, and governors of
Kokand khanat aspired to establish the control over them. During this period
the islam became extend especially strongly. The kyrgyz people pay to kokand
khan the duty. Not once Kirghiz people lifted revolts. In the autumn of 1873
southern kyrgyz decided to take Russian citizenship and by means will get
rid from kokand oppression. At that time they been refused in their request.
But after of some unsuccessful revolts of Kirghiz people, the Russian side
makes a decision to liquidate Kokand khanate by its connection to Russia.
Voluntary occurrence in structure of Russia. After a
cancelling of the serfdom, with growth of the large capitalist industry, to
the Russia became necessary more, than before, commodity markets and sources
of raw material , to one of which could become Central Asia. And Central
Asian people, and in particular Kyrgyzstan, saw on behalf of Russia the
defender from aggressors and the powerful economic partner. Process of
connection of Kyrgyzstan to Russia in the north of the country was peacefull,
and in the south aggressive. Difficulties created also that fact, that the
imperial authorities have not considered specificity of the Kirghiz society
entered new administrative division .
Heads of areas there were imperial officers and police officers. Over
local volosts supervised clans-breeding bais. Kyrgyz lived near lake
Issik-Kul as a tribe of bugu on January, 17th, 1855 to swear to Russian
manap of clan bugu was Borombay Bekmurat uulu. In 1844 he has
directed the embassy in Western-Siberian governorship. In 1853 has received
a grade of the Russian colonel. In 1855 he has sworn in Omsk about
acceptance of the Russian citizenship.
In 1862 with the request to be naturalized in Russia have addressed kyrgyz,
borrowed east territory Chui valleys. In same to year citizenship was taken
by kyrgyz lived in in the middle of Chui valleys . In 1864 Russian
citizenship have been taken by kyrgyz borrowed Susamir and Ketmentebinsky
valley.In the year 1864 on December, 24th the Kirghiz tribe sayak has
submitted the application on acceptance of a tribe to the Russian
Kyrgyzstan - Russia
In 1876 Russian troops defeated the Quqon Khanate and occupied northern
Kyrgyzstan. Within five years, all Kyrgyzstan had become part of the Russian
Empire, and the Kyrgyz slowly began to integrate themselves into the
economic and political life of Russia. In the last decades of the nineteenth
century, increasing numbers of Russian and Ukrainian settlers moved into the
northern part of present-day Kyrgyzstan. Russian specialists began
large-scale housing, mining, and road construction projects and the
construction of schools. In the first years of the twentieth century, the
presence of the Russians made possible the publication of the first books in
the Kyrgyz language; the first Kyrgyz reader was published in Russia in
1911. Nevertheless, Russian policy did not aim at educating the population;
most Kyrgyz remained illiterate, and in most regions traditional life
continued largely as it had before 1870.
By 1915, however, even many Central Asians outside the intelligentsia had
recognized the negative effects of the Russian Empire's repressive policies.
The Kyrgyz nomads suffered especially from confiscation of their land for
Russian and Ukrainian settlements. Russian taxation, forced labor, and price
policies all targeted the indigenous population and raised discontent and
regional tension. The Kyrgyz in Semirech'ye Province suffered especially
from land appropriation. The bloody rebellion of the summer of 1916 began in
Uzbekistan, then spread into Kyrgyzstan and elsewhere. Kazaks, Turkmen,
Uzbeks, and Kyrgyz participated. An estimated 2,000 Slavic settlers and even
more local people were killed, and the harsh Russian reprisals drove
one-third of the Kyrgyz population into China.
Photo picture of basmatchsfrom Museum of
Mikhail Frunze -they have been shot in a consequence
Kyrgyzstan - The Soviet Union and Recent History
Following a brief period of independence after the 1917 Bolshevik
Revolution toppled the empire, the territory of present-day Kyrgyzstan
was designated the Kara-Kyrghyz Autonomous Region and a constituent part of
the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (Soviet Union) in 1924. In 1926 the
official name changed to the Kyrgyz Autonomous Republic before the region
achieved the status of a full republic of the Soviet Union in 1936.
In the late 1980s, the Kyrgyz were jolted into a state of national
consciousness by the reforms of Soviet leader Mikhail S. Gorbachev and by
ethnic conflict much closer to home. As democratic activism stirred in
Kyrgyzstan's cities, events in Moscow pushed the republic toward unavoidable